Why might it be stretchy? Observation Time: Which glove inflated the fastest? The addition of water also allows the straggly glutenin and gliadin proteins to bond together to form gluten. About: We make fun and educational STEM kits that let you play with microbes. In terms of texture, the bread was airy, with mostly small air bubbles and a few large bubbles, and a soft chewy texture in the bread, a crust also formed on the outside which was crunchy and slightly chewy. Yeast is a living single celled organism commonly used in baking. Determine which “independent” variables you’d like to change and which “dependent” variables you’d like to measure. Google didn't help. When the yeast feeds on the sugars, it decomposes the sugars into carbon dioxide and ethanol alcohol. Yeast needs sugar to grow and a warm environment. There are hundreds of ways to make dessert breads and cakes. Wheat flour contains a protein, called gluten, which adds to the stretchiness of dough and the chewiness of bread. Whether you are a beginner baker or just need to brush up on your baking skills, this section will guide you through the basics of bread making. If you are having trouble buying yeast, ... Cakes are generally best if you use baking powder or soda to rise because they are tender and light. Yeast prefer warm conditions which is why warm water is recommended. Roughly 12,000 years ago, people living in modern-day Iraq first domesticated wheat and barley, leading to a massive rise in bread consumption during a period called the "Agricultural Revolution." Naturally occurring yeast are probably starting to eat and replicate, though it may take time to see any activity. Unlike store-bought yeast, the wild yeast in a sourdough starter is many different types of yeast, such as Hanensula anomala, Cndida tropicalis, and many others. Key Difference – Baking Powder vs Yeast There seems to be a lot of confusion over the difference between yeast and baking powder. After 24 hours, remove half of your dough, and mix in 7 scant tablespoons of flour and 4 tablespoons of water. So, if you want to see how I made the loaves or want to make them for yourself, I will link the full recipes below. In the bottle with the yeast and warm water nothing happens. The way bread bakes is through all the moisture being drawn out of the loaf. Think about taste, texture, density, color, etc. Try tearing those clumps apart to see how strong gluten strands can be. Although some of the recipes took time, they don’t require you to have incredible baking skills, so don’t be afraid to try your hand at making bread of your own! Bread-making all over the world continues its various traditions, in addition to enjoying new flavors, ingredients, and techniques. Our Inspiration. Pour quickly so you've finished pouring before the water starts to seep into the flour. Repeat Step 1 daily until your starter is bubbling and yeasty or fruity smelling. Alternatively, shape your own foil packets (caution: your dough might ooze at the seams if you try this, so pinch the corners tight)! Otherwise, continue repeating step 1 until your mixture doubles in 6 hours. Try the same experiment, but this time use about a tablespoon of baking powder instead of yeast, but without the sugar. Continue rinsing and gently massaging the dough until the water is no longer milky-looking. Is there is a difference in bubble size or consistency in the different doughs? Optional messy-but-fun step: With washed hands, scoop up the dough and knead it (fold it in on itself repeatedly). Beat together sugar and egg until fluffy with an electric mixer in the bowl. To grow these grains, people settled down and began to farm and build thriving communities. Once you let the dough rest, the yeast go to work! To keep the experiment controlled, I decided to use simple similar bread recipes that the only major difference between was the leavening agent. Baking Soda vs Baking Powder go head to head in this epic battle between two kitchen staples in this kid approved science experiment. Now that your culture is alive and well, continue to remove half and mix 7 scant tablespoons of flour and 4 tablespoons of water into your container every. Be sure to use a new stick (or spoon) for each container so that you don’t cross-contaminate the mixtures. This ensures the same amount of water is poured into each container. Generally speaking if the dough does not have these characteristics yeast alone works and does not run the risk of adding "baking powder flavor" to the product, and if the quickbread has a strong enough flavor due to other ingredients then the baking powder alone is sufficient and there is no need for a fermentation step. For microbes, some foods are easier to digest than others. (No wonder yeast means "bubbles" in old English and was dubbed saccharomyces, or “sugar fungus” in Latin!) This variety of yeast in the starter gives the bread its unique flavor as well as contributing to the unpredictable pattern in the rising and bubble structure of sourdough bread. Try adding a bit of yogurt with active cultures to your dough to see if you can grow lactobacillus and make tasty sourdough bread! Bonus Experiment: Sourdough (Quick version). While the yeast feeds on the sugars in the flour creating carbon dioxide and ethanol alcohol, the lactobacilli also feeds on the sugars and converts the sugars to lactic and acetic acid as well. No yeast goes into container #3. Populations boomed with these energy-rich, storable foods. Use the same mixing sticks (or clean spoons) from Step 8 to avoid cross-contamination. However, adding vinegar to yeast dough requires a delicate balance, because too much acid can stop yeast fermentation and hinder browning. Mark the side and bottom of the foil pans with “1”, “2,” and “3”, by indenting them with your finger or by using a pen. As the crust gets hotter and hotter, caramelization (when sugars oxidize) and the Maillard reaction (sugars reacting with amino acids at higher temperatures) occur, creating the distinct color and toasty flavor of the crust. What differences do you see between the breads? When a liquid is added to a batter containing baking powder, the tartaric acid (cream of tartar) and the sodium bicarbonate(baking soda) dissolve in the liquid and thus have more freedom to move around and react. The best part of this scientific investigation... the eruptions! Yeast & Baking Lessons We want you to be successful in baking! Overall this experiment did not disappoint. Nutrients that are easily digested are called “bioavailable.” Foods that have a lot of “bioavailable” nutrients, like bread and milk, often mold or sour quickly, which is why many store-bought breads contain preservatives and other chemicals to prevent microbes from growing on them. The chemicals undergo an acid-base reaction to produce carbon dioxide gas. For all three containers, add flour up to the 200ml mark (7/8 cup for each container). Most bread recipes that use vinegar call for no more than 1 teaspoon per 1- to 2-pound loaf. However, since the dough has gluten developed, the carbon dioxide doesn’t merely escape the bread into the surroundings, it gets trapped in between the gluten strands causing the dough to rise. All over the world, grains, like wheat, barley, rice, and maize started cropping up, due to humans’ careful selection of nature’s biggest and best grains. https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/flame-light-relight With the addition of warm water, yeast “activate,” meaning they begin to swim, eat, and multiply. Additionally, ethanol alcohol evaporates when baked, so they create small air pockets as well. Remove the gloves and place each ball of dough into the corresponding tin. Many new ingredients, like vitamin C and anti-microbial preservatives, are now often added to bread to allow bakers to use less-expensive grains and to lengthen shelf-life. This explains the large irregular bubbles that were present in the dough. Combine the dry ingredients, all-purpose flour, whole-wheat flour, baking powder and salt, in the large bowl and blend with a wooden spoon until thoroughly mixed. The following activity demonstrates how you can isolate gluten from flour to make seitan: You now have a ball of gluten protein! Yeast is, after all, a rising agent, and most kitchens have a jar or packet of another rising agent tucked away somewhere – baking powder! Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. After kneading for a few minutes, squish the dough back into the container, and flatten the top. As far as the procedures go though, I really just followed the recipes as written. Cup the dough in your hands, and run cold water over it continuously. Mix the dry ingredients together with a mixing stick (or clean spoon). https://bakerbettie.com/basic-quick-bread-recipe-sweet-or-savory/. Baking soda is a simple base and therefore needs to be combined with an acid of some sort, such as yogurt, lemon, or vinegar, in order to become activated. 4. To make this process faster, people would add pieces of old dough, mashed grapes, or beer foam, which are all full of yeast. You’ve created seitan, a food enjoyed all around the world, commonly with soy sauce, ginger, and garlic. Baking powder is made of a combination of an acid, a base, and a filler all in powdered form. The cold water will dissolve the starch in the dough, but it won’t dissolve the gluten. Repeat steps 1-3 for the different breads you’ve made and/or breads from the store. A leavener can be baking soda, baking powder or yeast. ( Log Out /  Through your experiments, you’ve learned different ways to make your bread denser or fluffier. Gently knock the jars down on the table a few times to level the mix. Since the bread is also kneaded, as explained this creates stronger and longer gluten chains, trapping the carbon dioxide in the bread, also creating the chewy texture. If you see weird colors, fuzzy patches, or anything else that looks like mold, you’ve caught some other moldy microbes, and you’ll need to start your sourdough starter over. It was only a few thousand years ago that people started using yeast to make bread fluffier and more delicious. Carbon dioxide is what is responsible for making breads rise. How does yeast work: Results. You can mix your dough with WARM liquid not hot, as hot liquid will kill the yeast. After playing with your ball, knead it back together, and pop it in the oven at 450 degrees F for 15-20 minutes (with adult supervision). The baking powder bread tasted slightly egg-like, almost biscuit-like in flavor. It derives its carbon dioxide gas through a biological process of fermentation. The following is a simple experiment that will show you which breads have the most “bioavailable” nutrients and the impacts of preservatives: Check the bags daily to see which pieces of bread are molding. However, instead of producing CO2, yeast will produce alcohols through a process called fermentation, making yeast a key player in beer and wine production. Bake the tins together for 20-30 minutes until the top of each loaf is golden-brown (adult supervision required). What Else Can I Try?. Wash your hands between each container to prevent contamination. This process of eating food and releasing waste is called “respiration.” Interestingly, even without oxygen, yeast continue to respire. This resulted in the airiness of the baking powder bread, but also explains why this bread was more dense and cake -like than the other breads. Yeast is activated or woken up by warm water and then the sugar acts as its food. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water. Baking powder and yeast are two of the most commonly used leavening agents in baked foods. If the baking powder is fresh, the mixture should produce lots of bubbles. Once you see bubbling in the mixture and the glove inflating, your yeast are replicating! Or, try: A) Olive Oil: Smear olive oil onto your baking sheet and over your flattened dough before baking. https://www.rookieparenting.com/the-science-of-bread-baking-kids-experiment Since both the yeasted and the sourdough breads were kneaded, and the yeasted had additional kneading time, they both got a crunchy chewy crust due to the gluten. Today, we call these "flat breads," and they include breads from all over the world, like pita, tortillas, and naan. Due to the unpredictable nature of the different wild yeast varieties in sourdough starter, sourdough often takes a long time (up to 18 hours) to properly rise because the yeast has to convert all the sugar to carbon dioxide. Specifically I was looking at the leavening agents and processes effects on flavor, texture, and color . “Respiration” describes the process of munching up food and releasing waste. Other ingredients (yogurt, baking soda, salt, honey, etc. One of the reasons bakers knead dough is to uncoil gluten compounds and encourage more linkages between them. A leavening agent is any substance that incorporates gas bubbles into the dough, causing it to lighten, soften, rise and take on what is usually referred to as a “fluffy” texture. Open the yeast packet using a pair of scissors. Once the bread has baked, this is what gives the loaf its airy texture. Their names may sound similar. Now, repeat step 1 one last time, and once your mixture is doubled in size and actively bubbling (a few hours), take what you need to use in your sourdough recipe of choice, and place the remainder in the fridge. In sourdough, these bacteria typically outnumber yeast 100-to-1! In terms of texture though, this bread overall had the largest irregular air bubbles, and a chewy texture in the bread, a crust also formed on the outside of the bread that was crunchy and slightly chewy. A leavener is what the dough needs to begin to rise. If your dough is dry and difficult to mix, add water until all your doughs are the same gooey consistency. You could also try the same experiment using hotter and colder water. Early bread was made of a grainy paste and was dense and flat, making it a perfect high-energy food that could be carried and stored. In a clean plastic sandwich bag, place one small (2” x 2”) piece of damp paper towel. If you've got non-chlorinated water, bottled or filtered, use it! C) Use a higher oven temperature (and shorter bake time). The active ingredient in baking powder, sodium bicarbonate or baking soda makes an excellent loaf of bread if you can’t get your hands on any yeast. Share it with us! Although they look similar, yeast and baking powder can't be swapped in a recipe. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. When you're ready to use your starter, take it out of the fridge, and return to Step 2, "Activate your Starter.". To design your own bread experiments, use the “Scientific Method": Once you’ve started your experiment, collect and analyze your data: Before you begin, plan your experiment! Many types of bacteria, such as lactobacillus, produce lactic acid as a waste product when they eat, which makes bread and yogurt sour. Observations Time: What differences do you observe in your breads? So, when baked, these carbon dioxide bubbles expand and spread apart due to the increased kinetic energy from heat, causing air bubbles to form and stay. For the traditional method of making sourdough, skip to Step 10. (Save the gloves for your yeast! When mixed with water, the sodium bicarbonate and acid combine and react to create carbon dioxide. So, although the surface dried out, the gluten proteins did not coagulate and create a crust. To keep the experiment controlled, I decided to use simple similar bread recipes that the only major difference between was the leavening agent. This resulted in the airiness and overly fairly uniform bubbly nature of the bread. However, the yeasted bread had a slightly yeasty flavor, but a distinct bread taste. Mix until the consistency is smooth. They start munching up sugars in a process called “respiration.” When yeast have lots of oxygen around, they perform “aerobic respiration,” releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste product. Add room temperature water up to the 350ml mark (1/2 cup + 2 tablespoons). So, when wet, a neutralization reaction occurs between the acid and base in baking powder, forming water, potassium sodium tartrate (a salt), and carbon dioxide. During this quarantine, I’ve had a lot of time to do things that I didn’t have time for before, so one of the things I took up was bread making. This drives down pH (to more acidic) and gives the sour taste to sourdough bread. C) Sweeteners: Sugar, bananas, apple sauce, sweetened chocolate, and even carrots are common ingredients that add sweetness! We encourage you to experiment with the common additives below to find your own perfect recipe: A) Vegetable Oil, to make the bread/cake moister, B) Eggs, to add to “fluffiness” and moisture and to help bind ingredients. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Stretch the opening of the gloves tight over the tops of the jars so that they just cover the top rim. Place a clean glove over the top of the jar such that it covers the top rim. ... we recommend testing sourdough as a chemistry experiment. Yeast converts sugar and starch (from the sugar and flour in the bread mix) into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Once your mixture looks foamy, repeat step 1, and if your mixture doubles in volume in about 6 hours, it's time to use. I cultivated my starter from a few simple ingredients, water, and flour, and over time it started to grow. They may look similar. Baking powder is a chemical ingredient also known as a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and acid salts. I even named my starter Beast because all living things deserve a name! In the presence of oxygen, this fungus munches up sugars and produces carbon dioxide, or CO2, making bubbles in liquid or dough. For this experiment, you'll want a supply of whole wheat flour. In the case of the baking powder bread, the liquids were added last and not over-mixed to prevent the carbon dioxide bubbles from escaping. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. You’ll need them again later. Both yeast (specifically, baker’s yeast) and baking powder are leavening agents. However, since the sourdough was kneaded less, less gluten developed, creating a more crunchy than chewy crust. In this Yeast and Sugar Science Fair Project, we’ll watch yeast feed on sugar to fill a balloon with air. Record what percentage of the bread is covered by mold, and see if the mold coverage follows an exponential growth curve. Sourdough starter is made using flour and water, and the wild yeast and natural bacteria in the flour start to feed on the sugars and thrive. The carbon dioxide gas makes the dough rise. Get a big glass of luke-warm water from the sink. On the other hand, baking powder is made with chemical compounds such as sodium bicarbonate. You'll need the following materials, included in Magical Microbes's DoughLab, or available at your local grocery (or pantry! This strengthens the gluten network and gives bread a more uniform, chewy texture. Use that knowledge to create your own perfect pizza crust. You may find a cake recipe or two that calls for yeast such as Potica or Panettone. However, since the batter wasn’t kneaded like a typical bread, the protein strands of gluten don’t develop as much, so carbon dioxide bubbles don’t get trapped in between the protein strands as much, and will exit the batter more readily. Since I was ultimately going to be making 3 loaves of bread, I decided to quarter the recipes to avoid creating unnecessary waste. The sourdough, on the other hand, had a distinct sour flavor in the bread, similar to what you’d expect from a sourdough. Add 3 small spoonfuls of yeast (3/4 teaspoon total) to container #1 (the “Control”) and Container #2 (the one with “Added Sugar”). For serious bakers, crust is often the most important part of bread. ( Log Out /  Baking powder is activated by a combination of heat and moisture. Did you make this project? They are used to make the dough rise as both produce carbon dioxide gas that stays as bubbles in the dough. Find out the difference between baking powder vs. yeast and when to use each. Did you notice any difference? Can you explain the results you find? This process starts immediately. I decided to make a sourdough starter during this quarantine because sourdough bread has always been my favorite, and we weren’t going to the store often. So, once stabilized and added to the flour and water of bread dough, the starter feeds on the sugars converting them into carbon dioxide, ethanol, and acetic and lactic acid. B) Salt: Add a couple more pinches of salt to the top of your flattened dough before baking. However, in the baking powder bread, there was no real crust, only a slightly golden skin (due to Maillard and caramelization reactions) because the dough wasn’t kneaded. I was left with three rather tasty different types of bread, and that’s all due to chemistry of the ingredients going together. Add 3 large packets of sugar (1/4 tablespoons total) to container #2, the “Added Sugar” container. There are three types of yeast; fresh yeast, instant yeast and active dry yeast Fresh yeast: used by profestional baker. You’ve probably also got some acid-producing bacteria in there that will give you sourdough. Yeast is actually a type of fungus related to mushrooms. This causes dough to become stretchy and gooey. If you’re a fan of tough, crunchy crusts, here are some tips: A) Cut 1/2-inch deep slits into the top of your dough before baking. Gluten proteins expand and become tangled up with other straggly gluten proteins nearby. Knead the dough in your hands until it's a compact ball. September 20, 2015 - 5:39pm. https://www.firstforwomen.com/posts/food-recipes/how-to-replace-yeast However, the textures of all of the pieces of bread were very different. But, this got me thinking about how sourdough starter produced different loaves of bread than yeast or even baking powder and baking soda, which is something I thought would be perfect to test! As mentioned, gluten is a protein, so when the dough is pulled and kneaded the strands of the protein stretch to become longer and stronger, this accounts for a chewier texture in the yeasted bread. The reactions occurring although somewhat similar, varied between bread recipes, resulting in three unique tasting and textured loaves of bread. In terms of texture, although it was airy, the air bubbles were relatively small, the texture was more similar to the density of a cake than anything else, and it had more of thin skin on the outside than a crust. Overall, the loaves looked and tasted very different, which is not surprising due to the different ingredients and processes that were involved in making the bread. No yeast goes into container #3. Baking Soda is alkaline and reacts with acids such as vinegar, releasing carbon dioxide ( a gas ) and water. Yummm! Mix the dry ingredients together with a … Yeast is a living organism that survives by consuming simple sugars, such as what can be found in flour and granulated sugar. But these two simple looking white powders can cause BIG reactions. Bread has changed quite a bit over the years. Yeast is a type of leavener (baking soda and baking powder can also be used as leaveners). All containers should get the same temperature water. ( Log Out /  If your dough looks good, you can save the dough you removed in an air-tight container in the fridge and bake it later! According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “leaven” comes from the Latin word “levare,” a word that means “lift up, to make light and rise.” Yeast gets energy from its favorite source of food in the form of sugar. You can substitute baking powder for yeast but the taste and texture will not be the same. Dough was left out in the open to "rise," as yeast (which naturally live on grains and other foods) would munch up sugars and release gas bubbles into the dough. ( Log Out /  Put your glove back on the container. Advice that I incorporated in this crumpet recipe that uses yeast and baking powder was; add vinegar, add oil, incorporate dry baking powder into batter by sifting it in and whisking quickly. In these instructions, container #1 is the “Control,” container #2 has “Added Sugar,” and container #3 has “No Yeast.”. Your ultimate guide to baking with yeast! In this experiment, the gas fills up the gloves. Both crusts got golden due to the Maillard and caramelization reactions. Seal up the bag and let it sit at room temperature out of direct sunlight. Yeast is far much healthier than baking powder. 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